Accessibility Tools
Knee Arthritis

Knee Arthritis

The joint surface is covered by a smooth articular surface that allows pain-free movement in the joint. Arthritis is a general term covering numerous conditions where the joint surface or cartilage wears out. This surface can wear out for several reasons; often the definite cause is not known. Arthritis often affects the knee joint.

Knee Fracture

Knee Fracture

A fracture is a condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone. In younger individuals, these fractures are caused by high energy injuries, as from a motor vehicle accident. In older people, the most common cause is a weak and fragile bone.

Patellar Instability

Patellar Instability

Any damage to the supporting ligaments may cause the patella to slip out of the groove either partially (subluxation) or completely (dislocation). This misalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the kneecap in place.

Meniscal Tears

Meniscal Tears

A meniscal tear is a common knee injury in athletes, especially those involved in contact sports. A sudden bend or twist in your knee causes the meniscus to tear. Elderly people are more prone to degenerative meniscal tears as the cartilage wears out and weakens with age.

Ligament Injuries

Ligament Injuries

Knee problems may arise if any of these structures get injured by overuse or suddenly during sports activities. Pain, swelling, and stiffness are the common symptoms of any damage or injury to the knee.

Patellar Dislocation/Patellofemoral Dislocation

Patellar Dislocation/Patellofemoral Dislocation

Patellar dislocation occurs when the patella moves out of the patellofemoral groove, (trochlea) onto the bony head of the femur. If the kneecap partially comes out of the groove, it is called subluxation; if the kneecap completely comes out, it is called dislocation (luxation).

Jumper's Knee

Jumper's Knee

Jumper’s knee, also known as patellar tendinitis, is inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in the extension of the lower leg.

Unstable Knee

Unstable Knee

The knee joint is one of the largest joints in the body. This highly complex joint has several tissues supporting and stabilizing its movement:

Fractures of the Tibia

Fractures of the Tibia

The lower leg is made up of two long bones called the tibia and fibula that extend between the knee and ankle. The tibia or shinbone is the larger of the two bones. It bears most of the body’s weight and helps form the ankle joint and knee joint.

Patella Fracture

Patella Fracture

The kneecap or patella forms a part of the knee joint. It is present at the front of the knee, protecting the knee and providing attachment to various muscle groups of the thigh and leg. The undersurface of the kneecap and the lower end of the femur are coated with articular cartilage, which helps in smooth movement of the knee joint.

Knee Pain

Knee Pain

Knee pain is a common condition affecting individuals of various age groups. It not only affects movement but also impacts your quality of life. An injury or disease of the knee joint or any structure surrounding the knee can result in knee pain. A precise diagnosis of the underlying cause is important to develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Anterior Knee Pain

Anterior Knee Pain

Anterior knee pain is characterized by chronic pain over the front and center of the knee joint. It is common in athletes, active adolescents (especially girls) and overweight individuals. Anterior knee pain refers to various conditions, which include runner's knee or patellar tendinitis, and chondromalacia of the patella.

ACL Tears

ACL Tears

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the major ligaments of the knee. It is located in the middle of the knee and runs from the femur (thighbone) to the tibia (shinbone). The ACL prevents the tibia from sliding out in front of the femur. Together with the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), it provides rotational stability to the knee.

MCL Tears

MCL Tears

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the ligament located on the inner part of the knee joint. It runs from the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps in stabilizing the knee.

Knee Injury

Knee Injury

Pain, swelling, and stiffness are the common symptoms of any damage or injury to the knee. If care is not taken during the initial phases of injury, it may lead to joint damage, which may end up destroying your knee.

Meniscal Injuries

Meniscal Injuries

Meniscal tears are one of the most common injuries to the knee joint. It can occur at any age but are more common in athletes involved in contact sports. The meniscus has no direct blood supply and for that reason, when there is an injury to the meniscus, healing is difficult.

PCL Injuries

PCL Injuries

Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), one of the four major ligaments of the knee, is situated at the back of the knee. It connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward motion of the shinbone.

Knee Sprain

Knee Sprain

Knee sprain is a common injury that occurs from overstretching of the ligaments that support the knee joint. A knee sprain occurs when the knee ligaments are twisted or turned beyond its normal range, causing the ligaments to tear.

MCL Sprains

MCL Sprains

The medial collateral ligament (MCL), a band of tissue present on the inside of your knee joint, connects your thighbone and shinbone (bone of your lower leg). The MCL maintains the integrity of the knee joint and prevents it from bending inward.

Knee Osteoarthritis

Knee Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It occurs most often in older people. This disease affects the tissue covering the ends of bones in a joint (cartilage).

Chondromalacia Patella

Chondromalacia Patella

Chondromalacia patella is a common condition characterized by softening, weakening and damage of the cartilage. The condition is most often seen in young athletes and older adults who have arthritis of the knee. It especially occurs in women.

Fractures of the Patella

Fractures of the Patella

The patella or kneecap is a small bone present in the front of your knee where the thigh bone meets the shinbone. It provides protection to your knee and attachment to muscles in the front of the thigh. An injury to the knee can result in a break or fracture of the patella.

Kneecap Bursitis

Kneecap Bursitis

Bursitis refers to the inflammation and swelling of the bursa. Inflammation of the bursa in front of the kneecap (patella) is known as kneecap bursitis or prepatellar bursitis.

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Iliotibial Band Syndrome

An iliotibial band is a tough group of fibers that runs from the iliac crest of the hip along the outside of the thigh, till the outer side of the shinbone, just below the knee joint. Its function is to coordinate with the thigh muscles and provide stability to the knee joint.

Pediatric ACL Tears

Pediatric ACL Tears

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament that provides stability, reduces stress and prevents the knee from rotating or slipping out of position while jumping, running and landing. This ligament can tear during sports activities and exercise, as a result of a non-contact twisting injury, and is becoming a common injury in children.

Shin Splints

Shin Splints

Shin splints are pain and inflammation of the tendons, muscles and bone tissue along the tibia or shinbone (lower leg). It occurs because of vigorous physical activities such as exercise or sports. The condition is also referred to as medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS).

Goosefoot Bursitis of the Knee

Goosefoot Bursitis of the Knee

A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac found between soft tissues and bones. It lubricates and acts as a cushion, decreasing the friction between bones when they move. Bursitis refers to the inflammation and swelling of the bursa.

Knee Infection

Knee Infection

Knee infection is a serious medical condition that needs immediate treatment. Infection may occur followed by a knee replacement surgery or trauma and is usually caused by bacteria. Infection may spread to the space of the knee joint or deep layers of your knee causing serious complications.

Multiligament Instability

Multiligament Instability

The knee is a complex joint of the body that is vital for movement. The four major ligaments of the knee are anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL).

Patellofemoral Instability

Patellofemoral Instability

Any damage to the supporting ligaments may cause the patella to slip out of the groove either partially (subluxation) or completely (dislocation). This misalignment can damage the underlying soft structures such as muscles and ligaments that hold the kneecap in place.

Articular Cartilage Injury

Articular Cartilage Injury

Articular or hyaline cartilage is the tissue lining the surface of the two bones in the knee joint. Cartilage helps the bones move smoothly against each other and can withstand the weight of the body during activities such as running and jumping.

Knee Sports Injuries

Knee Sports Injuries

Trauma is any injury caused during physical activity, motor vehicle accidents, electric shock, or other activities. Sports trauma or sports injuries refer to injuries caused while playing indoor or outdoor sports and exercising.

Osgood-Schlatter Disease

Osgood-Schlatter Disease

Osgood-Schlatter disease refers to a condition in older children and teenagers caused by excessive stress to the patellar tendon (located below the kneecap). Participants in sports such as soccer, gymnastics, basketball, and distance running are at higher risk for this disease.

Recurrent Patella Dislocation

Recurrent Patella Dislocation

The patella (kneecap) is a small bone that shields your knee joint. It is present in front of your knee, on a groove called the trochlear groove that sits at the junction of the femur (thighbone) and tibia (shinbone). Articular cartilage presents below the patella and end of the femur cushion and helps the bones glide smoothly over each other when the legs move.

Runner's Knee

Runner's Knee

Patellofemoral pain syndrome also called runner’s knee refers to pain under and around your kneecap. Patellofemoral pain is associated with a number of medical conditions such as anterior knee pain syndrome, patellofemoral malalignment, and chondromalacia patella.

Posterolateral Instability

Posterolateral Instability

Posterolateral instability, also known as posterolateral rotatory instability (PLRI), is a common pattern of knee instability that results from injuries to the structures that support the outside of the knee joint, the posterolateral corner.

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

The quadriceps can rupture after a fall, direct blow to the leg and when you land on your leg awkwardly from a jump. Quadriceps tendon rupture most commonly occurs in middle-aged people who participate in sports that involve jumping and running.

Multiligament Knee Injuries

Multiligament Knee Injuries

Injury to more than one knee ligament is called a multiligament knee injury and may occur during sports or other physical activities.

Lateral Patellar Compression Syndrome

Lateral Patellar Compression Syndrome

Lateral patellar compression syndrome refers to pain under and around your kneecap. It is a common complaint among runners, jumpers and other athletes such as skiers, cyclists, and soccer players.

Patellar Tendon Rupture

Patellar Tendon Rupture

The patellar tendon works together with the quadriceps muscle and the quadriceps tendon to allow your knee to straighten out. Patella tendon rupture is the rupture of the tendon that connects the patella (kneecap) to the top portion of the tibia (shinbone).

Tibial Shaft Fracture

Tibial Shaft Fracture

The lower leg is made up of two long bones called the tibia and fibula that extend between the knee and ankle and help form the ankle joint and knee joint. The tibia or shinbone is the larger of the two bones and is one of the major bones of the lower leg.

Loose Bodies in the Knee

Loose Bodies in the Knee

Loose bodies are fragments of detached cartilage or bone inside the knee joint. These fragments may be free floating (unstable) or may be trapped (stable) within the joint. Depending on the severity, you may have one or more loose bodies in your knee joint.

Tibial Plateau Fracture

Tibial Plateau Fracture

A tibial plateau fracture is a crack or break on the top surface of the tibia or shinbone in the knee joint. The fracture most often occurs following a high-intensity trauma or injury from the impaction of the femoral condyles over the tibial plateau.

Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar Tendinitis

Patellar tendinitis, also known as "jumper's knee", is an inflammation of the patellar tendon that connects your kneecap (patella) to your shinbone. This tendon helps in extension of the lower leg.

Pediatric Tibial Tubercle Fractures

Pediatric Tibial Tubercle Fractures

Tibial tubercle fractures are quite rare occurrences that typically affect physically active adolescents between the age of 14 and 17. It is caused by violent tensile forces exerted over the tibial tuberosity (a bulge in the tibial bone) during activities involving sudden contraction of the knee extensors (springing and jumping).

Women and ACL Injuries

Women and ACL Injuries

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four major ligaments of the knee that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone) and helps stabilize the knee joint. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the common injuries of the knee.

Medial Meniscus Syndrome

Medial Meniscus Syndrome

Of the menisci within the knee, it is the medial that is more easily injured. Differences in the anatomical attachments of the medial meniscus compared to the lateral, mean that the medial meniscus becomes distorted during combined flexion and rotation movements in a manner not experienced on the lateral side.

Tibial Eminence Spine Avulsion Fracture

Tibial Eminence Spine Avulsion Fracture

Tibial eminence spine avulsion fracture is the avulsion (tearing away) of the tibial eminence.

Total Knee Replacement

Total Knee Replacement

Total knee replacement, also called total knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the worn out or damaged surfaces of the knee joint are removed and replaced with an artificial prosthesis.

Knee Arthroscopy

Knee Arthroscopy

Knee arthroscopy is a common surgical procedure performed using an arthroscope, a viewing instrument, to diagnose or treat a knee problem. It is a relatively safe procedure and you will usually be discharged from the hospital on the same day of surgery.

ACL Reconstruction

ACL Reconstruction

ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure. With recent advances in arthroscopic surgery, it can now be performed with minimal incision and low complication rates.

PCL Reconstruction

PCL Reconstruction

PCL reconstruction surgery is a procedure to correct torn posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee using a tissue graft taken from another part of the body, or from a donor.

MCL Reconstruction

MCL Reconstruction

MCL reconstruction is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which a tendon graft is utilized to reconstruct the injured MCL.

Knee Cartilage Restoration

Knee Cartilage Restoration

Knee cartilage restoration is a surgical technique to repair damaged articular cartilage in the knee joint by stimulating new growth of cartilage or by transplanting cartilage into areas with defects in order to relieve pain and restore normal function to the knee.

Meniscal Surgery

Meniscal Surgery

Meniscal surgery is a surgical procedure employed for the treatment of torn or damaged meniscal tissues in the knee. It is mostly performed as a minimally invasive keyhole procedure.

Meniscus Replacement

Meniscus Replacement

Meniscus replacement is a surgical procedure performed to replace a torn or damaged meniscus in the knee.

Visionaire Knee Replacement

Visionaire Knee Replacement

Visionaire is an advanced surgical technology for a joint replacement that is based on the patient’s specific anatomy. Surgical instruments are designed according to X-ray, MRI or CT scan images of your knee joint.

Custom Knee Replacement

Custom Knee Replacement

Custom Knee Replacement is an advanced surgical procedure in which the damaged knee joint is replaced by a customized implant, specifically designed to match the unique size and shape of each patient’s knee.

Patient Specific Knee Replacement

Patient Specific Knee Replacement

Patient Specific Knee Replacement is a newer technology in total knee replacement surgery. It is an advanced procedure using an individualized patient-specific knee implant for replacement of all three components of the knee.

LCL Reconstruction

LCL Reconstruction

LCL reconstruction is a surgical procedure to repair torn or damaged lateral collateral ligament in the knee using a tissue graft taken from another part of the body, or from a donor.

LPFL Reconstruction

LPFL Reconstruction

LPFL reconstruction or lateral patellofemoral ligament reconstruction is a surgical procedure employed to treat patients with severe patellofemoral instability. The procedure involves replacing a torn lateral patellofemoral ligament with a part of a tendon taken from your leg.

Knee Ligament Reconstruction

Knee Ligament Reconstruction

Knee ligament reconstruction is a surgical procedure to repair or replace damaged ligaments of the knee joint. The surgery can be performed using minimally invasive techniques.

Revision Knee Ligament Reconstruction

Revision Knee Ligament Reconstruction

Revision knee ligament reconstruction is a complex surgical procedure performed to address failures or to correct the undesirable consequences of primary reconstruction surgery on your knee.

Posterolateral Corner (PLC) Reconstruction

Posterolateral Corner (PLC) Reconstruction

A posterolateral corner is a complex arrangement of multiple ligaments, tendons, muscles and a joint capsule in your knee. It is located on the outside back corner of the knee.

Posterolateral Corner Reconstruction

Posterolateral Corner Reconstruction

Posterolateral corner injury is damage or injury to the structures of the posterolateral corner. The structures of the posterolateral corner include the lateral collateral ligament, the popliteus tendon, and the popliteo-fibular ligament.

Arthroscopic Reconstruction of the Knee for Ligament Injuries

Arthroscopic Reconstruction of the Knee for Ligament Injuries

Arthroscopic knee ligament reconstruction is a surgical procedure to correct a torn knee ligament by replacing the ligament with a healthy tendon tissue using an arthroscope.

Multiligament Reconstruction of the Knee

Multiligament Reconstruction of the Knee

Multiligament knee reconstruction is a surgical procedure to repair or replace two or more damaged ligaments of the knee joint. The surgery can be performed using minimally invasive techniques.

Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

The medial patellofemoral ligament is a band of tissue that extends from the femoral medial epicondyle to the superior aspect of the patella. It is a major ligament that stabilizes the patella and helps in preventing patellar subluxation (partial dislocation) or dislocation.

Failed Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

Failed Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction

The knee joint is stabilized by four strong ligaments. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) passes diagonally in the middle of the knee, ensuring that the thigh and shin bone do not slide out of alignment during movement. ACL injury is one of the most common sports injuries of the knee joint and is generally repaired with ACL reconstruction surgery, where the torn ligament is replaced with a graft tendon.

Patellar Tendon Repair

Patellar Tendon Repair

Patellar tendon repair is the surgery performed to reattach the torn tendon to the kneecap and to restore normal function in the affected leg.

Meniscectomy

Meniscectomy

Meniscectomy is a surgical procedure indicated in individuals with torn meniscus where the conservative treatments are a failure to relieve the pain and other symptoms. Meniscectomy is recommended based on the ability of meniscus to heal, patient’s age, health status, and activity level.

Knee Fracture Surgery

Knee Fracture Surgery

A knee fracture is a broken bone or a crack in or around the joint of the knee. This can involve the tibia (shin bone), the kneecap (patella), or femur (thighbone) where they connect with the knee.

Patellofemoral Realignment

Patellofemoral Realignment

Patellofemoral realignment is a surgical procedure performed to treat symptomatic patellofemoral instability that does not respond to nonsurgical treatment measures.

Tibial Tubercle Transfer

Tibial Tubercle Transfer

Tibial tubercle transfer is a surgical procedure that is performed along with other procedures to treat patellar instability, patellofemoral pain, and osteoarthritis. The tibial tubercle transfer technique involves realignment of the tibial tubercle (a bump in the front of the shinbone) such that the kneecap (patella) traverses in the center of the femoral groove.

Meniscal Transplantation

Meniscal Transplantation

The meniscus is a C-shaped cartilage ring that acts as a cushion between the shinbone and the thighbone. Each of your knees has two menisci - one on the inside (medial aspect) and the other on the outside (lateral aspect)of your knee. Apart from the cushioning effect, the menisci also provide stability to the knee.

Quadriceps Tendon Repair

Quadriceps Tendon Repair

Quadriceps tendon is a thick tissue located at the top of the kneecap. The quadriceps tendon works together with the quadriceps muscles to allow us to straighten our leg. The quadriceps muscles are the muscles located in front of the thigh.

What is New in Knee Replacement

What is New in Knee Replacement

If you are considering knee replacement surgery, there are new developments under study which can help enhance the quality of life.

Computer Navigation for Total Knee Replacement

Computer Navigation for Total Knee Replacement

Computer navigation provides your surgeon with real-time 3-D images of your mapped knee and the surgical instruments during surgery. The data for the images is provided by infrared sensors fixed to the bones of the knee and surgical instruments.

Distal Realignment Procedures

Distal Realignment Procedures

Distal realignment procedures, also known as tibial tubercle transfer (TTT) procedures, are performed to reposition the kneecap after subluxation or dislocation by realigning the tendon under the kneecap to the underlying tibial tubercle.

Cartilage Replacement

Cartilage Replacement

Cartilage replacement is a surgical procedure performed to replace the worn-out cartilage with new cartilage.

Subchondroplasty

Subchondroplasty

Subchondroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that is performed to specifically repair chronic BMLs by filling them with a bone substitute material. The bone substitute is then slowly resorbed and replaced with healthy bone, repairing the bone defect.

Partial Meniscectomy

Partial Meniscectomy

Partial meniscectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the torn portion of the meniscus from the knee joint.

Cartilage Microfracture

Cartilage Microfracture

Cartilage microfracture is a surgical procedure performed to replace the worn-out articular cartilage with new cartilage.

Custom-fitted Total Knee Arthroplasty

Custom-fitted Total Knee Arthroplasty

Custom-fitted total knee arthroplasty is a newer more advanced technology in total knee replacement surgery that uses an individualized patient-specific knee implant for the replacement of all three components of the knee.

Lateral Lengthening

Lateral Lengthening

Lateral lengthening, also known as lateral retinacular lengthening or release, is a surgical procedure to release a tightened lateral retinaculum on the outer aspect of the knee.

Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy

Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy

Tibial tubercle osteotomy is a surgical procedure that is performed along with other procedures to treat patellar instability, patellofemoral pain, and osteoarthritis. The tibial tubercle transfer technique involves realignment of the tibial tubercle (a bump in the front of the shinbone) such that the kneecap (patella) traverses in the center of the femoral groove.

Physical Therapy for Knee

Physical Therapy for Knee

Physical therapy is an exercise program that helps you to improve movement, relieve pain, encourage blood flow for faster healing, and restore your physical function and fitness level. It can be prescribed as an individual treatment program or combined with other treatments.

Intraarticular Knee Injection

Intraarticular Knee Injection

Knee pain and stiffness can be disabling and difficult to treat. It can limit an individual’s lifestyle and negatively impact body image and emotional well-being.

Nonoperative Treatments for ACL Injuries

Nonoperative Treatments for ACL Injuries

The ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) is one of the four major ligaments located within the knee joint. It connects the femur (thighbone) to the tibia (shinbone). It plays a key role in holding the two bones within the knee and keeping the joint stable while your knee moves back and forth.

Non-Surgical Knee Treatments

Non-Surgical Knee Treatments

The knee is a complex joint which consists of bone, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons that make joint movements easy and at the same time it is more susceptible to various kinds of injuries. Knee problems may arise if any of these structures get injured by overuse or suddenly during sports activities.

Physical Examination of the Knee

Physical Examination of the Knee

A complete physical examination of the knee is performed when you present to your doctor with a knee complaint. Both of your knees are examined and the results of the injured knee are compared to those of the healthy knee.

Pre-op and Post-op Knee Guidelines

Pre-op and Post-op Knee Guidelines

Planning for your knee surgery prepares you for the operation and helps to ensure a smooth surgery and easier recovery. Here are certain pre-operative and post-operative guidelines which will help you prepare for knee surgery.

Am I a Candidate for Knee Surgery?

Am I a Candidate for Knee Surgery?

Arthritis of the knee can cause pain and stiffness, making regular activities such as walking and bending difficult. As arthritis progresses, conservative treatments tend to lose their efficacy and more definitive treatment should be considered.

After Knee Replacement

After Knee Replacement

Knee replacement is a surgery performed to replace parts of a diseased knee joint with artificial prostheses. The goal of knee replacement is to eliminate pain and return you to your normal activities.

Knee Anatomy

The knee is a complex joint made up of different structures - bones, tendons, ligaments, and muscles. They all work together to maintain the knee’s normal function and provide stability to the knee during movement.

Having a well-functioning healthy knee is essential for our mobility and ability to participate in various activities. Understanding the anatomy of the knee enhances your ability to discuss and choose the right treatment procedure for knee problems with your doctor.

Bones of the Knee

The knee is a hinge joint made up of two bones, the thighbone (femur) and shinbone (tibia). There are two round knobs at the end of the femur called femoral condyles that articulate with the flat surface of the tibia called the tibial plateau. The tibial plateau on the inside of the leg is called the medial tibial plateau and on the outside of the leg, the lateral tibial plateau.

The two femoral condyles form a groove on the front (anterior) side of the knee called the patellofemoral groove. A small bone called the patella sits in this groove and forms the kneecap. It acts as a shield and protects the knee joint from direct trauma.

A fourth bone called the fibula is the other bone of the lower leg. This forms a small joint with the tibia. This joint has very little movement and is not considered a part of the main joint of the knee.

Articular Cartilage and Menisci of the Knee

Movement of the bones causes friction between the articulating surfaces. To reduce this friction, all articulating surfaces involved in the movement are covered with a white, shiny, slippery layer called articular cartilage. The articulating surface of the femoral condyles, tibial plateaus and the back of the patella are covered with this cartilage. The cartilage provides a smooth surface that facilitates easy movement.

To further reduce friction between the articulating surfaces of the bones, the knee joint is lined by a synovial membrane that produces a thick clear fluid called synovial fluid. This fluid lubricates and nourishes the cartilage and bones inside the joint capsule.

Within the knee joint, between the femur and tibia, are two C-shaped cartilaginous structures called menisci. Menisci function to provide stability to the knee by spreading the weight of the upper body across the whole surface of the tibial plateau. The menisci help in load-bearing i.e. it prevents the weight from concentrating onto a small area, which could damage the articular cartilage. The menisci also act as a cushion between the femur and tibia by absorbing the shock produced by activities such as walking, running and jumping.

Ligaments of the Knee

Ligaments are tough bands of tissue that connect one bone to another bone. The ligaments of the knee stabilize the knee joint. There are two important groups of ligaments that hold the bones of the knee joint together, collateral and cruciate ligaments.

Collateral ligaments are present on either side of the knee. They prevent the knee from moving too far during side to side motion. The collateral ligament on the inside is called the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and the collateral ligament on the outside is called the lateral collateral ligament (LCL).

Cruciate ligaments, present inside the knee joint, control the back-and-forth motion of the knee. The cruciate ligament in the front of the knee is called anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the cruciate ligament in the back of the knee is called posterior cruciate ligament (PCL).

Muscles of the Knee

There are two major muscles in the knee - the quadriceps and the hamstrings, which enable movement of the knee joint. The quadriceps muscles are located in front of the thigh. When the quadriceps muscles contract, the knee straightens. The hamstrings are located at the back of the thigh. When the hamstring muscles contract, the knee bends.

Tendons of the Knee

A tendon is a tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone. The quadriceps muscles of the knee meet just above the patella and attach to it through a tendon called the quadriceps tendon. The patella further attaches to the tibia through a tendon called the patella tendon. The quadriceps muscle, quadriceps tendon, and patellar tendon all work together to straighten the knee. Similarly, the hamstring muscles at the back of the leg are attached to the knee joint with the hamstring tendon.

  • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS)
  • American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM)
  • American Association of Nurse Anesthetists (AANA)
  • Biologic Association
  • 
Pennsylvania Orthopaedic Society
  • Notre Dame Orthopaedic Society
  • USA Olympic Team Sports Medicine
  • Pittsburgh Pirates
  • Pittsburgh Pirates
  • Hopewell Area Schools
  • Greater Pittsburgh Orthopaedic Associates
  • 725 Cherrington Parkway
    Suite 200
    Moon Township, PA 15108

  • 1099 Ohio River Boulevard
    Sewickley, PA 15143